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Quality Policy

All the supplies are carefully checked within the house testing facility and full traceability is Maintained , all the supplies are certified.There exists a system of proper labeling of all materials for size , grades , okay , not okay or hold materials.

We are committed to customer satisfaction through performance excellence. To achieve our vision, we must continuously improve the quality of all products and services that we provide to our customers.

We are committed to doing so by using our most important resource (our employees at every level) to understand and continuously improve our processes. The management team is focused on providing the company with the best tools possible to succeed

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Carbide
A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. Cold rolling Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of metal to create strain hardening. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces a combination of hardness ductility stiffness etc. known as temper.

De-Carburisation
Removal of carbon from outer surface of steel. Elongation Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal. Endurance limit Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an indefinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.

Grain A solid polyhedral
(or many sided crystal ) consisting of groups of atoms bound together in a regular geometric pattern. In mill practice grains are usually studied only as they appear in one plane.
1. (Direction of) Refers to grain fiber following the direction of rolling and parallel to edges of strip or sheets.
2. To bend across the grain is to bend at right angles to the direction of rolling.
3. To bend with the grain is to bend parallel to the direction of rolling.

In steel, the ductility in the direction of rolling is almost twice that at right angles to the direction of rolling. Grain sizeAverage diameter of grains in the metal under consideration, or alternatively, the number of grains per unit area. Since increase in grain size is paralleled by lower ductility and impact resistance, the question of general grain size is of great significance. The addition of certain metals set up a grain size standard for steels, and the McQuaid – Ehn Test has been developed as a method of measurement. Grain boundaryBounding surface between crystals. When alloys yield new phases (as in cooling), grain boundaries are the preferred location for the appearance of the new phase. Certain deteriorations, such as season cracking and caustic embrittlement, occur almost exclusively at grain boundaries.

Hydrogen Embrittlement
1. Brittleness of metal, resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen usually as a by – product of pickling or by co – deposition in electroplating.
2. A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and internal pressure developed subsequently.

Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures. InclusionParticles of impurities (usually oxides, sulfides, silicates, etc) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal. Indentation HardnessThe resistance of a material to indentation. This is the usual type of hardness test , in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load. MacrostructureThe structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination.

Rolling Direction
(In rolled metal) The direction, in the plane of the sheet, perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling.

Testing Facilities

Rockwell Hardness (Test)
A standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (“brale”) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position.This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator. Various dial readings combined with different major loads, give “scales” designated by letters varying from “A” to “H”; the “B” and “C” scales are most commonly in use.

Salt Spray Test
An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently.

Scleroscope Hardness (Test)
A method for measuring the hardness of metals; a diamond pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. The scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance, with a specified high-carbon steel as 100.

Vickers Hardness (Test)
Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals, particularly those with extremely hard surfaces; the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table.

A test to determine the ductility of flat rolled steel strip in which the strip is bent around its axis.

Break Test
(For tempered steel.) A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and best across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges.

Bend test
A test to determine the ductility of flat rolled steel strip in which the strip is bent around its axis.

Rockwell Hardness Test
A method of measuring hardness. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of the residual penetration. A test for determining the hardness of a material based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed condition of test.

Quality Assurance

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Cold Reduced Strip
Metal strip, made from hot - rolled strip, by rolling on cold – reduction mills.


Cold rolling
Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of metal to create strain hardening. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces a combination of hardness ductility stiffness etc. known as temper.


Elongation
Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured, when subjected to stress. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.


Endurance limit
Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an indefinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.


Hardness
Hardness is defined as the resistance of material to local plastic deformation Achieved from indentation of predetermined geometric indenter on to a flat surface of metal under a predetermined load.

Degree to which a metal will resist cutting, abrasion, penetration, bending and stretching. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring. For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness. (See Brinell Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness.) Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness.


Heat Treatment
Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of temperature changes, time of retention at specific temperature and rate of cooling therefrom being as important as the temperature itself. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength, hardness, ductility, malleability, and similar properties of both metals and their alloys.


Inclusion
Particles of impurities (usually oxides, sulfides, silicates, etc) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal.


Indentation Hardness
The resistance of a material to indentation. This is the usual type of hardness test , in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load.


Manganese
(Chemical symbol Mn.) – Element No25 of the periodic system; atomic weight 54.93. Lustrous, reddish – white metal of hard brittle and, Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copper – base alloys. Its principal function is as an alloy in steel making:

1. It is ferrite – strengthening and carbide forming element. It increases hardenability inexpensively, with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high manganese accompany each other.
2. It counteracts brittleness from sulfur.


Martensite
A distinctive needle-like structure existing in stel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. Martensite is magnetic.


Mechanical Spring
Any spring produced by cold forming from any material with or without subsequent heat treatment.


Medium-Carbon Steel
Medium-carbon steels are similar to low-carbon steels except that they contain carbon from 0.30% to 0.60% and manganese . Increasing the carbon content to approximately 0.5% with an accompanying increase in manganese allows medium-carbon steels to be used in the quenched and tempered condition
Contains from 0.30% to 0.60% carbon and less than 1.00% manganese. May be made by any of the standard processes.

Quality Standards

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Blue tempered strip:
This strip is polished after hardening and tempering and them chemically blued

Acid Brittleness/Hydrogen embrittlement
Brittleness resulting from pickling of steel in acid, hydrogen formed by interaction of iron and acid is absorbed and causes brittleness. Aluminum Killed Steel A Steel where aluminum is used as a deoxidizing agent

Aluminum Killed Steel
A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent. (See killed steel)

Annealing
A heating and cooling operation implying usually a relatively slow cooling. Annealing is a comprehensive term. The purpose of such a heat treatment may be : to remove stresses; to induce softness; to alter ductility; toughness; electrical magnetic, or other physical properties; to refine the crystalline structure; to remove gases; to produce a definite micro –structure. In annealing, the temperature of the operation and the rate of cooling depend upon the material being heat treated and the purpose of the treatment.

Annealing is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable. It involves heating a material above its recrystallization temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature for a suitable amount of time, and then cooling.

In annealing, atoms migrate in the crystal lattice and the number of dislocations decreases, leading to a change in ductility and hardness. As the material cools it recrystallizes. For many alloys, including carbon steel, the crystal grain size and phase composition, which ultimately determine the material properties, are dependent on the heating rate and cooling rate. Hot working or cold working after the annealing process alter the metal structure, so further heat treatments may be used to achieve the properties required. With knowledge of the composition and phase diagram, heat treatment can be used to adjust from harder and more brittle to softer and more ductile.

Austenite
Phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of carbon or iron carbide, in the gamma form of iron. Such steels are known as “austenitic.” Austenite is stable only above 13330 F in a plain carbon steel, but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese, stabilizes the austenitic form, even at normal temperatures.

Austenite Steel
Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese nickel, chromium, etc., show stability of Austenite at normal temperatures.

Austempering
Carbon steel is quenched above transformation ranges, in a medium having rate of high abstraction sufficiently high to prevent the transformation of high temperature products and then holding the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formations and above that of martensite formation.

Band Saw Steel
(WOOD) – A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.

Brinell Hardness
A common standard method of measuring the hardness of certain metals. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure or load. The diameter of the resulting indentation, in the metal surface, is measured by a special microscope and the Brinell hardness value read from a chart or calculated by formula.

Brittleness
A tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation.

Quality Objectives

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Burr
A thin ridge or roughness left by a cutting operation such as in metal slitting, shearing, blanking or sawing. This is common to a No.3 slit edge in the case of steel.

Bainite
A slender needle like an acicular structure appearing in Spring characterized by toughness and greater ductility then tempered martensite.

Bonderizing
A coating with a film composed of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better surface for further coating.

Camber Or Bow
Edgewise curvature, A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line.

Carbon(Chemical symbol c)
Element No.6 of the periodic system; atomic weight 12.01; has three allotropic modifications, all non-metallic, Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys, and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resulting metal. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. Its metallurgical use, in the form of coke, for reduction of oxides, is very extensive.

Carburizing(Cementation.)
Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids, liquids or gases. The oldest method of case hardening.

Case Hardening
Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat – treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron – base alloy.

Cementite
A compound of iron and carbon known as “Iron carbide,” which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6.69% of carbon. Hard and brittle, it is the hard constituent of cast iron, and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. It is magnetizable, but not as readily as ferrite.

Chromium(Chemical symbol Cr)
Element NO.24 of the periodic system; atomic weight 52.01. It is of bright silvery color, relatively hard. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron – base alloy. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making;1 increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation2 increases hardenability3 adds some strength at high temperatures4 resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon).

Coil set or longitudinal curl
A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. A departure from longitudinal flatness.Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges.

Coil Breaks
Creases or Ridges appearing in sheets as parallel lines transverse to the direction of rolling and generally extending across the width of the sheet

Cold Reduced Strip
Metal strip, made from hot - rolled strip, by rolling on cold – reduction mills.

Dish
A concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. Indicates transverse or across the width.

Camber
Edgewise curvature, a lateral deviation of an edge from a straight line. Lateral departure of the edge of the material from straight line forming a chord.

Macrostructure
The structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination.

Grain growth
An increase in metallic crystal size as annealing temperature is raised; growth occurs by invasion of crystal areas by other crystals. HardenabilityThe ability of a metal, usually steel, to harden in depth as distinguished from the terms “hardness.” (See Hardness.)

Quality Compliance

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Nickel
(chemical symbol Ni) Element No.28 of the periodic system; atomic weight 58.69. silvery white, slightly magnetic metal, of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion; melting point 2651 F; boiling point about 5250 F; specific gravity 8.90. Used for electroplating. Used as an alloying agent , it is of great importance in iron- base alloys in stainless steel and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-Nickel, as well as in nickel – base alloys such as Monel Metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making1. Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels.2. Toughens pearlitic – ferritic steels (especially at low temperature).3. Renders high – Chromium iron alloys austenitic

Normalizing
A heat treatment applied to steel. Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. Is performed to refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress.

Oscillated Wound
A Method of even winding metal strip or wire on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. Sometimes termed “stagger wound” or “vibrated wound.” The opposite of ribbon wound.

Pearlite
Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.

Phosphorus
(Chemical symbol P) - Element No.15 of the periodic system; atomic weight 30.98. Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms; melting point 1110 F.; boiling point 5360 F.; specific gravity 1.82. In steel it is usually undesirable with a limit set in most specifications. However, it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets; to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel; increases resistance to corrosion, and improves machinability in free-cutting steels. In the manufacture of phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent.

Quenching
In the heat treating of metals, the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties; most commonly accomplished by immersing the metal in oil or water.

Residual Stress
Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of nonuniform plastic deformation. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding.

Silicon
(Chemical Symbol Si.) - Element No. 14 of the periodic system; atomic weight 28.06. Extremely common element, the major component of all rocks and sands; its chemical reactions, however, are those of a metalloid. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. Silicon is present, to some extent, in all steels, and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets, extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited

Silt Edge
The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters,

Slitting
Cutting sheet or strip metal to Width by rotary slitters.

Sorbite
Structure of steel, resulting from the tempering of martensite. In a truly sorbitic structure, the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. The trend is to call structure tempered martensite.

Sorbitic Pearlite
Structure of steel resulting, on cooling under the proper condition, from the decomposition of austenite; has a fine, lamellar appearance.

Specific Gravity
A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water, for which the specific gravity is taken as 1.0000

Quality Mantra

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Martensite
A distinctive needle like structure existing in steel as on range in transformation of austenite. It is the hardest constituent of steel. A metastable phase of steel formed by a transformation of austenite below Ms temperature. It is an supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having body centered tetragonal lattice. Its structure is characterized by an acicular or needle-like distinct pattern.

Mechanical spring
Spring is produced by cold forming with or without subsequent heat treatment.

Microstructure
The structure of the strip specimen was revealed in the microscope.

Yield Point
The load per unit of original cross section at which, in soft steel, a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load.

Oil hardening
A process of hardening by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil.

Pearlite
Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.

Permanent set
Deformation of strip under stress after passing the elastic limits.

Quenching
In the heat treatment of steel, the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties'

Laminations
A defect appearing in steel strip segregation or layer caused by packets of gas in ingots.

Commitment To Quality

Quality Terms and Procedures:

Spectrograph
An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave length of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited.

Spheroidizing
Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling if steel which will convert the carbide content into rounded or spheroid from.

Spring Back
An indicator of elastic stresses, frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic during heating or stress relieving.

Stress
Deforming force to which a body is subjected, or, the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force. (See also Strain and Hooke's Law.)

Temper
The state of or condition of a metal as o its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency.

Tempering
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys. Tempering is usually performed after hardening, to reduce some of the excess hardness, and is done by heating the metal to some temperature below the critical point for a certain period of time, then allowing it to cool in still air. The exact temperature determines the amount of hardness removed, and depends on both the specific composition of the alloy and on the desired properties in the finished product. For instance, very hard tools are often tempered at low temperatures, while springs are tempered at much higher temperatures. ( Also termed “drawing.”) A process of reheating quench – hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired . The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the stel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite.

Temper Rolling
Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually ½ to 1-1/2% ) to forestall stretcher strains. Also termed “Pinch Pass' or “Skin Rolled” (Also See Cold Rolling)

Toughness
Property of resisting fracture or distortion. Usually measured by impact test, high impact values indicate high toughness.

Trace
Extremely small quantities of an element, usually too small to determine quantitatively .

Vanadium
(Chemical Symbol V.) Element No23 of the periodic system; atomic weight 50.95. Gray – White, hard metal, unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalles but soluble in most strong acids; melting point 31119 F; boiling point about 6150 F; specific gravity 5.87 It cannot be electrodeposited. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels1. Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain )2. Increases hardenability (when dissolved)3. Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening.

Water Hardening
Process of hardening high carbon steel by quenching in water or brine, after heating.

Young's Modulus
The coefficient of elasticity of stretching. For a stretched wire, Young’s Modulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross sectional area to the elongation per unit length. The values of Young’s Modulus for metals are of the order 1012 dynes per square cm. (See Modulus of Elasticity.)